This post is about a new feature of PostgreSQL 11 I have been working on for the last couple of months, which has finally been merged into the upstream repository. So if nothing goes wrong, we will have channel binding support for SCRAM authentication in the next release of Postgres. The feature set consists mainly of the following commits. Here is the first one, which has added tls-unique:
commit: 9288d62bb4b6f302bf13bb2fed3783b61385f315 author: Peter Eisentraut <email@example.com> date: Sat, 18 Nov 2017 10:15:54 -0500 Support channel binding 'tls-unique' in SCRAM This is the basic feature set using OpenSSL to support the feature. In order to allow the frontend and the backend to fetch the sent and expected TLS Finished messages, a PG-like API is added to be able to make the interface pluggable for other SSL implementations. This commit also adds a infrastructure to facilitate the addition of future channel binding types as well as libpq parameters to control the SASL mechanism names and channel binding names. Those will be added by upcoming commits. Some tests are added to the SSL test suite to test SCRAM authentication with channel binding.
Then there is a second one to control how to use channel binding from the client-side, for a libpq feature:
commit: 4bbf110d2fb4f74b9385bd5a521f824dfa5f15ec author: Peter Eisentraut <firstname.lastname@example.org> date: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 10:12:36 -0500 Add libpq connection parameter "scram_channel_binding" This parameter can be used to enforce the channel binding type used during a SCRAM authentication. This can be useful to check code paths where an invalid channel binding type is used by a client and will be even more useful to allow testing other channel binding types when they are added. The default value is tls-unique, which is what RFC 5802 specifies. Clients can optionally specify an empty value, which has as effect to not use channel binding and use SCRAM-SHA-256 as chosen SASL mechanism. More tests for SCRAM and channel binding are added to the SSL test suite.
And finally here is the last one, which adds support for tls-server-end-point:
commit: d3fb72ea6de58d285e278459bca9d7cdf7f6a38b author: Peter Eisentraut <email@example.com> date: Thu, 4 Jan 2018 15:29:50 -0500 Implement channel binding tls-server-end-point for SCRAM This adds a second standard channel binding type for SCRAM. It is mainly intended for third-party clients that cannot implement tls-unique, for example JDBC.
Channel binding is a security-related feature aimed at preventing man-in-the-middle attacks after doing the initial SSL handshake during authentication by confirming that the server and the backend are still the same. This is done, as defined by RFC 5929 by using what is called binding data, which depends on the SSL context where the connection is done. There are two types of channel bindings which have been added:
- tls-unique, which makes sure that a specific connection is used by using a 64b-encoded string coming from the TLS finished message, which is generated at the end of the SSL handshake.
- tls-server-end-point, which uses a hash of the server certificate, which makes sure that the end points are the same. This will be useful for clients where trying to work with TLS unique data is cumbersome, like the Postgres JDBC driver.
Note that channel binding is specific to SSL. So if you attempt a connection without a SSL context, the server will not publish the SASL mechanism called SCRAM-SHA-256-PLUS (the suffix -PLUS is here to point out that channel binding is supported), and the client will not select it. The way to control how channel binding behaves during a SCRAM authentication is done through a dedicated, new, connection parameter called scram_channel_binding, which has the following properties:
- A caller can specify the name of the channel binding to use.
- The default, and as defined by the RFCs, is tls-unique.
- An empty value allows the client to not use channel binding, and this even if the server has published the dedicated SASL mechanism. In this case the client sends SCRAM-SHA-256 as SASL mechanism for the exchange and enforces the binding flag to ‘n’, meaning no channel binding to use.
Note that during the development we noticed a couple of things. tls-server-end-point can only be used with OpenSSL versions newer than 1.0.2, as dedicated APIs are only available since this version. This is caused by the necessary function X509_get_signature_nid() which is necessary to retrieve the hash algorithm used for a certificate. This has been implemented by the following commit in upstream OpenSSL:
commit: dfcf48f499f19fd17a3aee03151ea301814ea6ec author: Dr. Stephen Henson <firstname.lastname@example.org> date: Wed, 13 Jun 2012 13:08:12 +0000 New functions to retrieve certificate signatures and signature OID NID.
The problem here is that any certificates using MD5 or SHA-1 need to use SHA-256 for the server certificate hashing per the channel binding specification, so some filtering needs to be done. So if you build Postgres with an older version of OpenSSL and try to use tls-server-end-point, then you will get a protocol error.
Then, as noticed on this thread by Peter Eisentraut during the patch review for channel binding, is that a v11 client was not able to connect to a v10 server in an SSL context. So you will need at least v10.2 which is planned for February 2018 before being able to get that to work. This should not be an issue as Postgres 11 is planned for the end of the year.
So, what’s next? Well, from my point of view this finishes all the features of SCRAM that I wanted to get into PostgreSQL, so I have no plans to work on more features for SCRAM, still there are a couple of things that could be considered (I am going to focus on some other stuff for Postgres 12):
- Allow the iteration count used in SCRAM verifiers to be configurable. The tricky part here is that you need to provide some handling on libpq side as well, while the server-side could use a dedicated GUC parameter. Until this happens, it is always possible to use workarounds like the one described in a previous post.
- Add an option for pg_hba.conf which allows a server to override the use of channel binding for an HBA match if a client is trying to not use it. With the feedback I received during an unconference session done at PGConf Asia last December, this may be not worth the code complications, and being able to control channel binding from the client is more appealing.
- Work on protocol downgrades. A rogue server can still enforce MD5 to be used without the client being aware of it even if it would want to use SCRAM. This could become useful when forgetting to upgrade a server’s configuration after a post-10 upgrade, but the impact seems limited.
I would like to thank primarily Peter Eisentraut who has provided a bunch of feedback for the patch set and has helped in making it progress in the good direction so as it has been merged into upstream Postgres. Peter has found bugs on the way, and corrected me where I was wrong, with at the end being the committer to merge the code into the tree.