Replication slots can be used in streaming replication, with physical replication slots, and logical decoding, with logical replication slots, to retain WAL in a more precise way than wal_keep_segments so as past WAL segments are removed at checkpoint using the WAL position a client consuming the slot sees fit. A feature related to replication slots has been committed to PostgreSQL 12:
commit: 9f06d79ef831ffa333f908f6d3debdb654292414 author: Alvaro Herrera <email@example.com> date: Fri, 5 Apr 2019 14:52:45 -0300 Add facility to copy replication slots This allows the user to create duplicates of existing replication slots, either logical or physical, and even changing properties such as whether they are temporary or the output plugin used. There are multiple uses for this, such as initializing multiple replicas using the slot for one base backup; when doing investigation of logical replication issues; and to select a different output plugins. Author: Masahiko Sawada Reviewed-by: Michael Paquier, Andres Freund, Petr Jelinek Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAD21AoAm7XX8y_tOPP6j4Nzzch12FvA1wPqiO690RCk+uYVstg@mail.gmail.com
This introduces two new SQL functions adapted for each slot type:
By default pg_basebackup uses a temporary replication slot to make sure that while transferring the data of the main data folder the WAL segments necessary for recovery from the beginning to the end of the backup are transferred properly, and that the backup does not fail in the middle of processing. In this case the slot is called pg_basebackup_N where N is the PID of the backend process running the replication connection. However there are cases where it makes sense to not use a temporary slot but a permanent one, particularly when reusing a base backup as a standby with no WAL archiving around, so as it is possible to keep WAL around for longer without having a primary’s checkpoint interfere with the recycling of WAL segments. One major take of course with replication slots is that they require a closer monitoring of the local pg_wal/ folder, as if its partition gets full PostgreSQL would immediately stop.
In the case of a physical slot, a copy is useful when creating multiple standbys from the same base backup. As a replication slot can only be consumed by one slot, it reduces the portability of a given base backup, however it is possible to do the following:
- Complete a base backup with pg_basebackup –slot using a permanent slot.
- Create one or more copies of the original slot.
- Use each slot for one standby, which release WAL at their own pace.
Another property of the copy functions is that it is possible to switch a physical slot from temporary to permanent and vice-versa. Here is for example how to create a slot from a permanent one (controlled by the third argument of the function) which retains WAL immediately (controlled by the second argument). The copy of the slot will mark the restart_lsn of the origin slot to be the same as the target:
=# SELECT * FROM pg_create_physical_replication_slot('physical_slot_1', true, false); slot_name | lsn -----------------+----------- physical_slot_1 | 0/15F2A58 (1 row) =# select * FROM pg_copy_physical_replication_slot('physical_slot_1', 'physical_slot_2'); slot_name | lsn -----------------+------ physical_slot_2 | null (1 row) =# SELECT slot_name, restart_lsn FROM pg_replication_slots; slot_name | restart_lsn -----------------+------------- physical_slot_1 | 0/15CF098 physical_slot_2 | 0/15CF098 (2 rows)
Note that it is not possible to copy a physical slot to become a logical one, but that a slot can become temporary after being copied from a permanent one, and that the copied temporary slot will be associated to the session doing the copy:
=# SELECT pg_copy_logical_replication_slot('physical_slot_1', 'logical_slot_2'); ERROR: 0A000: cannot copy logical replication slot "physical_slot_1" as a physical replication slot LOCATION: copy_replication_slot, slotfuncs.c:673 =# SELECT * FROM pg_copy_physical_replication_slot('physical_slot_1', 'physical_slot_temp', true); slot_name | lsn --------------------+------ physical_slot_temp | null (1 row) =# SELECT slot_name, temporary, restart_lsn FROM pg_replication_slots; slot_name | temporary | restart_lsn --------------------+-----------+------------- physical_slot_1 | f | 0/15CF098 physical_slot_2 | f | 0/15CF098 physical_slot_temp | t | 0/15CF098 (3 rows)
The copy of logical slots also has many usages. As logical replication makes use of a slot on the publication side which is then consumed by a subscription, this makes the debugging of such configurations easier, particularly if there is a conflict of some kind on the target server. The most interesting property is that it is possible to change two properties of a slot when copying it:
- Change a slot from being permanent or temporary.
- More importantly, change the output plugin of a slot.
In the context of logical replication, the output plugin being used is pgoutput, and here is how to copy a logical slot with a new, different plugin. At creation the third argument controls if a slot is temporary or not:
=# SELECT * FROM pg_create_logical_replication_slot('logical_slot_1', 'pgoutput', false); slot_name | lsn ----------------+----------- logical_slot_1 | 0/15CF7C0 (1 row) =# SELECT * FROM pg_copy_logical_replication_slot('logical_slot_1', 'logical_slot_2', false, 'test_decoding'); slot_name | lsn ----------------+----------- logical_slot_2 | 0/15CF7C0 (1 row) =# SELECT slot_name, restart_lsn, plugin FROM pg_replication_slots WHERE slot_type = 'logical'; slot_name | restart_lsn | plugin ----------------+-------------+--------------- logical_slot_1 | 0/15CF788 | pgoutput logical_slot_2 | 0/15CF788 | test_decoding (2 rows)
And then the secondary slot can be looked at with more understandable data as it prints text records of logical changes happening. This can be consumed with the SQL functions like pg_logical_slot_get_changes as well as a client like pg_recvlogical.